Electric Heater 220V 400W/800W Mute Carbon Tube Heating Birdcage Electric Heater Heat Conduction Dump Power Off Energy Saving Heater for Home, Office (Color : Green)

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Electric Heater 220V 400W/800W Mute Carbon Tube Heating Birdcage Electric Heater Heat Conduction Dump Power Off Energy Saving Heater for Home, Office (Color : Green)

Electric Heater 220V 400W/800W Mute Carbon Tube Heating Birdcage Electric Heater Heat Conduction Dump Power Off Energy Saving Heater for Home, Office (Color : Green)

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Steady-state conduction is the form of conduction that happens when the temperature difference(s) driving the conduction are constant, so that (after an equilibration time), the spatial distribution of temperatures (temperature field) in the conducting object does not change any further. Thus, all partial derivatives of temperature concerning space may either be zero or have nonzero values, but all derivatives of temperature at any point concerning time are uniformly zero. In steady-state conduction, the amount of heat entering any region of an object is equal to the amount of heat coming out (if this were not so, the temperature would be rising or falling, as thermal energy was tapped or trapped in a region).

Second sound is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which heat transfer occurs by wave-like motion, rather than by the more usual mechanism of diffusion. Heat takes the place of pressure in normal sound waves. This leads to a very high thermal conductivity. It is known as "second sound" because the wave motion of heat is similar to the propagation of sound in air. An example of transient conduction that does not end with steady-state conduction, but rather no conduction, occurs when a hot copper ball is dropped into oil at a low temperature. Here, the temperature field within the object begins to change as a function of time, as the heat is removed from the metal, and the interest lies in analyzing this spatial change of temperature within the object over time until all gradients disappear entirely (the ball has reached the same temperature as the oil). Mathematically, this condition is also approached exponentially; in theory, it takes infinite time, but in practice, it is over, for all intents and purposes, in a much shorter period. At the end of this process with no heat sink but the internal parts of the ball (which are finite), there is no steady-state heat conduction to reach. Such a state never occurs in this situation, but rather the end of the process is when there is no heat conduction at all. T ∂ t = α ( ∂ 2 T ∂ x 2 + ∂ 2 T ∂ y 2 + ∂ 2 T ∂ z 2 ) {\displaystyle {\frac {\partial T}{\partial t}}=\alpha \left({\frac {\partial During any period in which temperatures changes in time at any place within an object, the mode of thermal energy flow is termed transient conduction. Another term is "non-steady-state" conduction, referring to the time-dependence of temperature fields in an object. Non-steady-state situations appear after an imposed change in temperature at a boundary of an object. They may also occur with temperature changes inside an object, as a result of a new source or sink of heat suddenly introduced within an object, causing temperatures near the source or sink to change in time.Occasionally, transient conduction problems may be considerably simplified if regions of the object being heated or cooled can be identified, for which thermal conductivity is very much greater than that for heat paths leading into the region. In this case, the region with high conductivity can often be treated in the lumped capacitance model, as a "lump" of material with a simple thermal capacitance consisting of its aggregate heat capacity. Such regions warm or cool, but show no significant temperature variation across their extent, during the process (as compared to the rest of the system). This is due to their far higher conductance. During transient conduction, therefore, the temperature across their conductive regions changes uniformly in space, and as a simple exponential in time. An example of such systems is those that follow Newton's law of cooling during transient cooling (or the reverse during heating). The equivalent thermal circuit consists of a simple capacitor in series with a resistor. In such cases, the remainder of the system with a high thermal resistance (comparatively low conductivity) plays the role of the resistor in the circuit. The theory of relativistic heat conduction is a model that is compatible with the theory of special relativity. For most of the last century, it was recognized that the Fourier equation is in contradiction with the theory of relativity because it admits an infinite speed of propagation of heat signals. For example, according to the Fourier equation, a pulse of heat at the origin would be felt at infinity instantaneously. The speed of information propagation is faster than the speed of light in vacuum, which is physically inadmissible within the framework of relativity. In steady-state conduction, all the laws of direct current electrical conduction can be applied to "heat currents". In such cases, it is possible to take "thermal resistances" as the analog to electrical resistances. In such cases, temperature plays the role of voltage, and heat transferred per unit time (heat power) is the analog of electric current. Steady-state systems can be modeled by networks of such thermal resistances in series and parallel, in exact analogy to electrical networks of resistors. See purely resistive thermal circuits for an example of such a network.

Metals (e.g., copper, platinum, gold, etc.) are usually good conductors of thermal energy. This is due to the way that metals bond chemically: metallic bonds (as opposed to covalent or ionic bonds) have free-moving electrons that transfer thermal energy rapidly through the metal. The electron fluid of a conductive metallic solid conducts most of the heat flux through the solid. Phonon flux is still present but carries less of the energy. Electrons also conduct electric current through conductive solids, and the thermal and electrical conductivities of most metals have about the same ratio. [ clarification needed] A good electrical conductor, such as copper, also conducts heat well. Thermoelectricity is caused by the interaction of heat flux and electric current. Heat conduction within a solid is directly analogous to diffusion of particles within a fluid, in the situation where there are no fluid currents. An example of a new source of heat "turning on" within an object, causing transient conduction, is an engine starting in an automobile. In this case, the transient thermal conduction phase for the entire machine is over, and the steady-state phase appears, as soon as the engine reaches steady-state operating temperature. In this state of steady-state equilibrium, temperatures vary greatly from the engine cylinders to other parts of the automobile, but at no point in space within the automobile does temperature increase or decrease. After establishing this state, the transient conduction phase of heat transfer is over. Conduction is the process by which heat is transferred from the hotter end to the colder end of an object. The ability of the object to conduct heat is known as its thermal conductivity, and is denoted k. New external conditions also cause this process: for example, the copper bar in the example steady-state conduction experiences transient conduction as soon as one end is subjected to a different temperature from the other. Over time, the field of temperatures inside the bar reaches a new steady-state, in which a constant temperature gradient along the bar is finally set up, and this gradient then stays constant in time. Typically, such a new steady-state gradient is approached exponentially with time after a new temperature-or-heat source or sink, has been introduced. When a "transient conduction" phase is over, heat flow may continue at high power, so long as temperatures do not change.

If changes in external temperatures or internal heat generation changes are too rapid for the equilibrium of temperatures in space to take place, then the system never reaches a state of unchanging temperature distribution in time, and the system remains in a transient state.

For example, a bar may be cold at one end and hot at the other, but after a state of steady-state conduction is reached, the spatial gradient of temperatures along the bar does not change any further, as time proceeds. Instead, the temperature remains constant at any given cross-section of the rod normal to the direction of heat transfer, and this temperature varies linearly in space in the case where there is no heat generation in the rod. [2] The inter-molecular transfer of energy could be primarily by elastic impact, as in fluids, or by free-electron diffusion, as in metals, or phonon vibration, as in insulators. In insulators, the heat flux is carried almost entirely by phonon vibrations. The analysis of non-steady-state conduction systems is more complex than that of steady-state systems. If the conducting body has a simple shape, then exact analytical mathematical expressions and solutions may be possible (see heat equation for the analytical approach). [3] However, most often, because of complicated shapes with varying thermal conductivities within the shape (i.e., most complex objects, mechanisms or machines in engineering) often the application of approximate theories is required, and/or numerical analysis by computer. One popular graphical method involves the use of Heisler Charts. When a new perturbation of temperature of this type happens, temperatures within the system change in time toward a new equilibrium with the new conditions, provided that these do not change. After equilibrium, heat flow into the system once again equals the heat flow out, and temperatures at each point inside the system no longer change. Once this happens, transient conduction is ended, although steady-state conduction may continue if heat flow continues. In the engineering sciences, heat transfer includes the processes of thermal radiation, convection, and sometimes mass transfer. [ further explanation needed] Usually, more than one of these processes occurs in a given situation.In conduction, the heat flow is within and through the body itself. In contrast, in heat transfer by thermal radiation, the transfer is often between bodies, which may be separated spatially. Heat can also be transferred by a combination of conduction and radiation. In solids, conduction is mediated by the combination of vibrations and collisions of molecules, propagation and collisions of phonons, and diffusion and collisions of free electrons. In gases and liquids, conduction is due to the collisions and diffusion of molecules during their random motion. Photons in this context do not collide with one another, and so heat transport by electromagnetic radiation is conceptually distinct from heat conduction by microscopic diffusion and collisions of material particles and phonons. But the distinction is often not easily observed unless the material is semi-transparent. In gases, heat transfer occurs through collisions of gas molecules with one another. In the absence of convection, which relates to a moving fluid or gas phase, thermal conduction through a gas phase is highly dependent on the composition and pressure of this phase, and in particular, the mean free path of gas molecules relative to the size of the gas gap, as given by the Knudsen number K n {\displaystyle K_{n}} . [1]



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